Antiochus III Megas

Antiochus III, The Great King (From a Bust in the Louvre)

Antiochus III the Great (Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241 – 187 BC, ruled 222–187 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire. He ruled over the region of Syria and large parts of the rest of western Asia towards the end of the 3rd century BC. Rising to the throne at the age of eighteen in 222 BC, his early campaigns against the Ptolemaic Kingdom were unsuccessful, but in the following years Antiochus gained several military victories and substantially expanded the empire's territory. His traditional designation, the Great, reflects an epithet he assumed. He also assumed the title Basileus Megas (Greek for "Great King"), the traditional title of the Persian kings. A militarily active ruler, Antiochus restored much of the territory of the Seleucid Empire, before suffering a serious setback, towards the end of his reign, in his war against Rome.
Coin of Antiochus the Great. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, of King Antiochus.

Declaring himself the "champion of Greek freedom against Roman domination", Antiochus III waged a four-year war against the Roman Republic in mainland Greece in autumn of 192 BC before being decisively defeated at the Battle of Magnesia. He died three years later on campaign in the east.
Antiochus III, as known as the great for his campaigns to the Indus Valley, (242-187 BC), King of Syria (223-187 BC), son of Seleucus II and brother of Seleucus III, whom he succeeded. It was the most important King of the Seleucid dynasty. This ruler, ascended to power in 221, had from the beginning of his reign planned a war against the Egyptians, but he faced this task only when he had strengthened his power in Asia minor with a series of successful enterprises that gave him back a situation of superiority and control, of course according to the usual situation of his monarchy that only with the arms could completely ensure the sovereign power over the territories that composed his domains.

In this series of campaings, Antiochus III came to India, imposed his superiority over the Arabs and took control over all the caravan routes that brought Eastern goods in his country, congregating in Syria the wealth and well being. Defeated at the battle of Rafah (also known as the battle of Raphia) from Ptolemy the fourth, shortly after, Antiochus III could benefit from a egyptian dynastic crisis for the death of winner of Raphia and the advent to the throne, in childhood, of Ptolemy V, with an anticipated weakening of the monarchy. However, in those days, a new power, Rome, was widespread in the Eastern Mediterranean and was becoming a predominant factor certainly not for the benefit of the Seleucids. The Egypt, which was the first of the Hellenistic States asking the Roman intervention and benefit from it, was able to start a long stasis period, thanks to the Roman protection, to survive with what came from the vitality of its organizations and with the richness of its economy.
Coin of Antiochos III.

In 222 BC, Antiochus III married Princess Laodice of Pontus, a daughter of King Mithridates II of Pontus and Princess Laodice of the Seleucid Empire. The couple were first cousins through their mutual grandfather, Antiochus II Theos. Antiochus and Laodice had eight children (three sons and five daughters):
Antiochus (221–193 BC), Antiochus III's first heir apparent and joint-king with his father from 210–193 BC
Seleucus IV Philopator (c. 220 – 175 BC), Antiochus III's successor
unnamed daughter, betrothed in about 206 BC to Demetrius I of Bactria
Laodice IV, married all three of her brothers in succession and became Queen of the Seleucid Empire through her second and third marriages
Cleopatra I Syra (c. 204 – 176 BC), married in 193 BC Ptolemy V Epiphanes of Egypt
Antiochis, married in 194 BC King Ariarathes IV of Cappadocia
Mithridates (215–164 BC), succeeded his brother Seleucus IV Philopator in 175 BC under the regnal name Antiochus IV Epiphanes

In 191 BC, Antiochus III married a girl from Chalcis, whom he named "Euboea". They had no children. Laodike III may have fallen in disgrace; however, she clearly survived Antiochus III, and appears in Susa in 183 BC


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Davies, Philip R. (2002). Second Temple studies III: studies in politics, class, and material culture. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-8264-6030-1. "The difference is that from the perspective of Antiochus III, the Greek king of a Greek empire, or from the later point of view of a head of state communicating with a Greek city-state"
Garg, Gaṅgā Rām (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu world, Volume 2. Concept Publishing Company. p. 510. ISBN 978-81-7022-375-7. "Antiochus III the Great. Greek king who ruled an empire including Syria and western Asia (including Mesopotamia and Iran towards the end of the 3rd century BC. It was during his time that Bactria became independent under Euthydemos. Shortly afterwards Antiochus III crossed the Hindu Kush and attacked an Indian prince named Subhagasena (Sophagasenas of the classical writers) who ruled over the Kabul valley. Antiochus III defeated Subhagasena, extorted from him a large cash indemnity and many elephants before he went back to his country. This invasion produced no permanent effect."
Jones, Peter V.; Sidwell, Keith C. (1997). The World of Rome: An Introduction to Roman Culture. Cambridge University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-521-38600-5. "Antiochus III, the Greek king of Syria (the dynasty there was called 'Seleucid'), was busily expanding in Asia Minor and in 196 BC even crossed into Europe to annex part of Thrace."
Whitehorne, John Edwin George (1994). Cleopatras. Routledge. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-415-05806-3. "...in the autumn of 192 BC they heard that Antiochus III had crossed over to Greece with his army and declared himself the champion of Greek freedom against Roman domination."
Wilson. Nigel Guy (2006). Encyclopedia of ancient Greece. Routledge. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-415-97334-2. "ANTIOCHUS III THE GREAT c242-187 BC Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great was the sixth king (223-187 BC) … Antiochus landed on the mainland of Greece posing as a champion of Greek freedom against the Romans (192 BC)."
Bertman, Stephen (2003). Handbook to life in ancient Mesopotamia. Infobase Publishing. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-8160-4346-0. "Antiochus III (222–187 BC) A member of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty"
Zion, Noam; Spectre, Barbara (2000). A Different Light: The Big Book of Hanukkah. Devora Publishing. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-930143-37-1. "Antiochus III, the Greek Seleucid Dynasty of Greater Syria captures Judea. 172 or 171-163"
Baskin, Judith R.; Seeskin, Kenneth (2010). The Cambridge Guide to Jewish History, Religion, and Culture. Cambridge University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-521-68974-8. "The wars between the two most prominent Greek dynasties, the Ptolemies of Egypt and the Seleucids of Syria, unalterably change the history of the land of Israel…As a result the land of Israel became part of the empire of the Syrian Greek Seleucids."
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. 2000. p. 61. ISBN 978-90-5356-503-2. "Jewish settlements in the interior of Asia Minor were known as early as the 3rd century BC when Antiochus III resettled 2000 Jewish families from Babylonia into Lydia and Phrygia"
E. Bickerman, “La Charte séleucide de Jérusalem,” REJ 100 (1935): 4–35.
Polybius 11.34, Antiochus Moves from Bactria Through Interior Asia
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Bringmann, Klaus (2007). A history of the Roman republic. Polity. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-7456-3371-8. "The Aetolians called on Antiochus the ‘liberate’ Greece and to act as arbitrator between them and the Romans. Thereupon the king landed in Demetrias in the late autumn of 192 with a small army, and the Aetolian assembly elected him supreme strategos. His attempt to gather together al those who were dissatisfied with the peace agreement of 196 under the banner of Greek freedom had some success but proved a failure overall."
I. Estremo Oriente 190
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Glubb, Sir John Bagot (1967). Syria, Lebanon, Jordan. Thames & Hudson. p. 34. OCLC 585939. "Although the Ptolemies and the Seleucids were perpetual rivals, both dynasties were Greek and ruled by means of Greek officials and Greek soldiers. Both governments made great efforts to attract immigrants from Greece, thereby adding yet another racial element to the population."
Jonsson, David J. (2005). The Clash of Ideologies. Xulon Press. p. 566. ISBN 978-1-59781-039-5. "Antiochus III was born in 242 BC, the son of Seleucus II, near Susa, Persia."
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Polybius/5*.html#51 Polybius Hist 5.51
Polybius 10.49, Antiochus Engages the Bactrians

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