9.12.16

Druids

Every autumn, Apollo was leaving his home in Delphi to spent his winter at the mythical Land of the Hyperboreans. 

The Land of the Hyperboreans was the land where Apollo's mother Leto was born and the priests of Apollo descended. It was a luminous, colorful and warm island that was very hard to find, because it lied beyond the point where the north wind blows. The people of the island lived in harmony with each other and with nature. They never ate meat, only the fruits of the trees, and were immune to aging and diseases. 


Up on his a winged chariot which was pulled by two pure white swans, Apollo was traveling above the clouds, slowly leaving behind Greece. During his journey, he could see the dense snow of the mountains from his chariot. But while he was approaching his destination, the snow slowly began to dwindle away. The golden rays of the sun were strong enough to pass through the clouds, illuminating a magical land. Upon arrival, Apollo got off his chariot and stepped on the green, fertile grass. Immediately, festivals started taking place, with birds flying between the trees and singing divine melodies.

But at the same time in Greece, black clouds darkened the sun because the god of light was missing. The people in Greece felt cold and gathered around the fireplace, patiently awaiting the return of Apollo. As soon as the god of light returned, he removed the the darkness with his golden rays and the lovely spring season arrived. Happily, people glorified their benefactor with festivals and sang joyful songs about the sun and the light. 

According to the Greek geographer Pausanias, Heracles also visited the Land of the Hyperboreans and brought the olive tree to the Greek people. He planted the first branch in the sacred place of Olympia.

The first Druids that moved 

The first Druids (oakmen) that moved outside Greece were the fellowship of Apollo on his trip to Hypervorea, 

Hamadryad
A hamadryad (/hæməˈdraɪ.æd/; Greek: Ἁμαδρυάδες, Hamadryádes) is a Greek mythological being that lives in trees. They are a particular type of dryad, which are a particular type of nymph. Hamadryads are born bonded to a certain tree. Some believe that hamadryads are the actual tree, while normal dryads are simply the entities, or spirits, of the trees. If the tree died, the hamadryad associated with it died as well. For that reason, dryads and the gods punished any mortals who harmed trees. The Deipnosophistae of Athenaeus lists eight hamadryads, the daughters of Oxylus and Hamadryas:

Karya (walnut or hazelnut)
Balanos (oak)
Kraneia (dogwood)
Morea (mulberry)
Aigeiros (black poplar)
Ptelea (elm)
Ampelos (vines, especially Vitis)
Syke (fig)

Their mother, Hamadryas, is immortalized in the name of two genera: that of the cracker butterfly, and that of the northernmost monkey in Asia Minor, the hamadryas baboon. The cracker butterfly is more arboreal than most butterflies, as it commonly camouflages itself on trees. It feeds on sap, rotting fruit and dung. The hamadryas baboon is one of the least arboreal monkeys, but was the most common monkey in Hellenic lands.


The term Druids
The term Druids (Druids), indicate the fair priestly class in ancient Celtic societies, which lived in Western Europe, North and beyond the Alps and later the British Isles. 

Druids were priests of an ancient Celtic * religious order. Powerful figures in the Celtic world, they served not only as religious leaders but also as teachers, judges, advisers, soothsayers, healers, and poets. The Druids held both religious and political power, leading to some blurring of the line between the spiritual and historical worlds.

The earliest records of the Druids date back to the 200s B . C . Various ancient Greek and Roman writers described the beliefs and practices of the Celtic priests, and Welsh and Gaelic poetry also provided some details. However, more complete information about the Druids comes from the writings of Julius Caesar (ca. 100-44 B . C .), the Roman general and statesman.

The customs of the Druids were part of the culture of all racial groups called 'Celts' and 'Galatai' by Greeks and 'Celtae' and 'Galli' by the Romans, names which have evolved into today 'Celtic' and 'Gaulish'. The Druids took their name from the Oak (Oak) and were priests and philosophers and legislated and bestowed justice.

The oak was also the "sacred" tree of the Greek royal houses of Macedonia, which is historically proven and archaeological findings to the number found in the royal Macedonian tomb with its famous royal crowns.

There is perhaps no coincidence that the Druids took their name from the oak tree (oak), one tree was sacred to the Greeks from the depths of antiquity. Let us not forget the prophetic oracle in sacred oak of Dodona, the oldest oracle in the world, the sacred tree of Gaia and later Jupiter.

The most important references to the Druids are described in ancient documents, especially  in the Latin language. The most important books, perhaps mainly because of the author's personal prestige and his access to the latest knowledge and his own perception of events, are the writings of Julius Caesar with the title "De Bello Gallico". A series of books that he writes about geography and society of the Gauls or Celts, himself the emperor of Rome. ( Gaius Julius Caesar, 13 Ιουλίου 100 BC - 15 March 44 BC )

Translated from Latin, in some of his writings here we read: "There are throughout Gaul two classes of people of specified importance and honors. In these classes, one is consisted by the Druids, the other  the Knights."

"It is reported that schools of Druids, taught by heart many verses. Some druids stayed for twenty years in education (discipline). And they did not consider it appropriate to write these speeches, although in almost all cases, both public and secret reports they use the Greek language (Greek letters) "

The same book says:  "The main point of ideology is that the soul does not die and after death passes from one body to another" (Transfiguration).

This observation led several ancient writers to the conclusion that the Druids might have influenced by the teachings of Pythagoras. The Caesar also notes that the druidic meaning of the guardian spirit of the race, translates as Dispater (Dispater-> Zeus - father).

Lebor Gabála Érenn
In the mythological book Lebor Gabála Érenn [Book of Invasions-Book of Intrusion] we read about the Greek Partholona who came to Ireland after the flood. It is said to have originated from the Middle Macedonia or Greece, with his wife, three sons with their wives and three Druids, all brothers between them, their names  Fios, Aiolos and Fomoris, (FiOS, Eolas, Fochmarc), names that etymologically mean , "Intellect, Knowledge and Research. Holders of this wisdom was the Druids, Greeks adepts as we conclude from the ancient texts.

In the same book we read that the Partholon was a Greek prince who killed his parents hoping to inherit the kingdom. The incident costs him his one eye and a string of bad luck.He was nevertheless master of every major art. He had a total of 7 sons. After 30 years of residence in Ireland, he died near the town that is now called Tallaght, where 120 years after his descendants perished by an outbreak of plague.

Source/Photo/Bibliograpy

De Bello Gallico, Julius Caesar
These are the Greek, Theodore Petropoulos
Julius Caesar, Wikipedia
encyclopedia.com
DP Perdikaris, Dora Spyridou
Kuno Meyer, 'Partholón mac Sera', Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie, 13 (1919), 141-2;
Anton G. van Hamel, 'Partholón', Revue Celtique, 50 (1933), 217-37;
Henry Morris, 'The Partholon Legend', Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries, 67 (1937), 57-71.
Christiane L. Joost-Gaugier, 'Measuring Heaven - Pythagoras and His Influence on Thought and Art in Antiquity and the Middle Ages', (2006), 112-113

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