Twelve Days of Dionysus

Twelve Days of Dionysus

Γενέθλια του Διονύσου

The Twelve Days of  Dionysus

The Twelve Days is one of the great festivals of Ællinismόs (Hellenismos; Gr. Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion. The commencement of this holiday is December 25th and the festivities continue on for eleven more days, according to Greek tradition. It is the called the Yænǽthlia (Genethlia; Gr. Γενέθλια), i.e. the birthday, of Ælefthæréfs Diónysos (Gr. Ἐλευθερεύς Διόνυσος), Dionysus the Liberator. 

Why is this such a great festival in our religion, one of the most important and sublime? It is because this festival marks the fulfillment of the providence of our father Zefs who is the highest (Ὕπατος) of all the Gods, and who, when he created a new generation of beings, foresaw that we would be trapped in anxiety, and to alleviate our sufferings he conceived a son who, with his Mysteries, would free us from an endless circle of rebirths (κύκλος γενέσεως); all of this can be found in the Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony (See The Sixth King), the story of the origin of the Gods.

The legitimacy of the festival

The Twelve-Days-celebration is mostly unknown outside of Greece, but this author was told that "just as birds fly and dogs bark, all Greeks know that Christmas is Dionysus' birthday," and these same Greeks insist that the observance of the festival extends back to ancient times. Nonetheless, the authenticity of this date has been challenged, and this author has searched for some passage from antiquity to confirm it. While there are many websites that claim that Christmas is actually Dionysus' birthday, most offer little in the way of citations; nonetheless, there is significant evidence which may be found in the note below.

Naturally, it is immediately evident that not only does the birthday fall on the Christian holiday, but the multi-day observance follows exactly the twelve days of Christmas, but it is not that we are abducting the Christian holiday...exactly the reverse:

"The superstitions and customs connected by the modern folk with the Twelve Days are undoubtedly an inheritance from ancestors who celebrated the Brumalia and other pagan festivals at the same season of the year. These ancient festivals, though Roman in name, probably differed very little in the manner of their observance from certain old Greek festivals, chief among which was some festival of Dionysus. This is rendered probable both by the date of these festivals and by the manner of their celebration. For the worship of Dionysus was practically confined to the wintertime, at Delphi his cult superseded that of Apollo during the three winter months; and at Athens the four festivals of Dionysus fell within about the same period --- the rural Dionysia at the end of November or beginning of December, the Lenaea about a month later, the Anthesteria at the end of January, and the Great Dionysia at the end of February. As for the manner of conducting the Latin-named festivals, Asterios' description of the Kalándae in the fifth century plainly attests the Dionysiac character of the orgies, and Balsamon, in the twelfth, was so convinced, from what he himself witnessed, of their Bacchanalian origin, that he actually proposed to derive the name Brumalia from Βροῦμος (by which he meant Βρόμιος) a surname of Dionysus.

The mumming then, which is still customary in some parts of Greece during the Twelve Days, is a survival apparently of festivals in honour of Dionysus. Further the mummers dress themselves up to resemble Callicantzari (ed. see below). But the worship of Dionysus presented a similar scene; 'those who made processions in honour of Dionysus,' says Ulpian, 'used to dress themselves up for that purpose to resemble his companions, some in the guise of Satyrs, others as Bacchae, and others as Sileni.' The mummers therefore of the present day have, it appears inherited the custom of dressing up from the ancient worshippers of Dionysus and are their modern representatives; and from this it follows that the Callicantzari whom the modern mummers strive to resemble are to be identified with those motley companions of Dionysus whom his worshippers imitated of old." 

The Twelve Days celebration honors the Olympian Gods as well as Dionysus

The Twelve Days of Dionysus is a great celebration of Vákkhos (Bacchus; Gr. Βἀκχος) in which the Olympian Gods are honored on successive days in the order of the Natural Laws over which they have dominion:


Dec. 26 - Áris

Dec. 27 - Ártæmis

Dec. 28 - Íphaistos

Dec. 29 - Íra

Dec. 30 - Poseidóhn

Dec. 31 - Athiná

Jan. 1 - Aphrodíti

Jan. 2 - Apóllohn

Jan. 3 - Ærmís

Jan. 4 - Zefs

Jan. 5 - Dimítir

The Hellenic religious day begins not at midnight, but at dusk of the day before, so you may do ritual at sunset on the 24th of December, and in a like manner for each of the days. 

To honor Dionysus we recite his great hymns

All of the Orphic hymns to Dionysus may be recited on each day of the festivities, or just those you like; it is your personal choice. The most important hymn, however, is number 30 (XXIX To Bacchus in some versions of the Thomas Taylor translation), and it should be recited in addition to any of the others. The hymn 46.To Liknítis (Gr. Λικνίτης) is also particularly relevant as it refers to Diónysos of the líknon (Gr. λίκνον), i.e., the cradle. Kradiaios (Gr. Κραδιαῖος) Dionysus is the infant Vákkhos (Gr. Βἀκϰος), taken from the thigh of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) and given to the Goddess Ípta (also Ippa; Gr. Ἵπτα) to be taken to Mount Ídi (Ida; Gr. Ίδη) in a winnowing basket (the líknon) with a snake wound around it, placed upon her head.  Therefore, hymn 49 to Ípta is another good choice. Ípta went up the mountain to the Mother of the Gods, where baby Vákkhos was guarded by the Kourítæs (Couretes; Gr. Κουρῆτες).  Ípta is called the nurse of Dionysus, as it states in her hymn.

If you use the Thomas Taylor translation of the hymns, the version we prefer, the numbering in the older editions are off by one increment; this problem has been corrected in the Prometheus Trust publication entitled Hymns and Initiations. Because so many people have the older numbering, we are providing those numbers designated as OTN, i.e. "old Taylor numbering," along with Taylor's titles for the hymns.
Next follows a list of all the Orphic hymns which relate, in one way or another, to Dionysus.  

29. PÆRSÆPHÓNI  [Gr. Περσεφόνη]  (OTN ["old Taylor numbering"]: XXVIII.  To Proserpine)

30. DIÓNYSOS  [Gr. Διόνυσος]  (OTN: XXIX. Bacchus) This is the most important of the hymns to the God. Please visit the following link for help understanding the hymn as well as the Greek text and a very helpful transliteration: The Orphic Hymn (30) to Diónysos.

42. MÍSA  [Gr. Μίσα]  (OTN: XLI. To Mises)

44. SÆMǼLI  [Gr. Σεμέλη] (OTN: XLIII. To Semele)

45. DIÓNYSOS VASSARǼOHS [Gr. Διόνυσος Βασσαρέως]  (OTN: XLIV. Dionysius Bassareus Triennalis)

46. LIKNÍTIS  [Gr. Λικνίτης] (OTN: XLV. Liknitus Bacchus)

47. PÆRIKIÓNIOS [Gr. Περικῑόνιος] (OTN: XLVI. Bacchus Pericionius)

48. SAVÁZIOS  [Gr. Σαβάζιος] (OTN: XLVII.Sabasius)
49. ÍPTA  Gr. [Ἵπτα]  (OTN: XLVIII. To Ippa)

50. LYSÍOS-LINAIOS  [Gr. Λυσίος Ληναίος] (OTN: XLIX. To Lysius Lenæus)

52. TRIETIRIKOS  [Gr. Τριετηρικος?]  (OTN: LI. To Trietericus )

53. AMPHIÆTOUS  [Gr. Ἀμφιετοῦς] (OTN:  LII. To Amphietus Bacchus )

54. SEILINÓS, SÁTYROS, VÁKKHAI  [Gr. Σειληνός, Σάτυρος, Βάκχαι]  (OTN: LIII. To Silenus, Satyrus, and the Priestesses of Bacchus)

74. LEFKOTHǼA  [Gr. Λευκοθέα] (OTN: LXXIII. To Leucothea)

75. PALAIMOHN  [Gr. Παλαίμων] (OTN: LXXIV.  o Palæmon)


There is a folk tradition in Greece called the Twelve Days of Christmas. These holidays correspond exactly with the Twelve Days of Diónysos, which are concealed or covered by the Christian holidays, so say the Greeks who practice the ancient religion. The Kallikántzari (Callicantzari; Gr. Καλλικάντζαροι) are mischievous creatures similar to the Irish faeries, gnomes, goblins, and elves. They become terribly excited during these holidays and cause all kinds of trouble until they are "polluted" by the Orthodox priests with holy water on the last of the Twelve Days, only for them to rise again next year at Christmas. There is a suspicion that the Kallikántzari are none other than our blessed Gods, "Lilliputianized" to diminish their importance, and that, perhaps, they become exuberant at the birth of mighty Diónysos and of his joyous celebrations every year, or perhaps they represent obscured memories of the train of revelers of Diónysos from the great festivals which took place in winter.

"Quick, begone! we must begone,
Here comes the pot-bellied priest,
With his censer in his hand
And his sprinkling-vessel too;
He has purified the streams
And he has polluted us!"  
"Many attempts have been made to account for the Kallikantzari. Perhaps the most plausible explanation of the outward form, at least, of the uncanny creatures, is the theory connecting them with the masquerades that formed part of the winter festival of Dionysus and are still to be found in Greece at Christmastide." 

The Romans celebrated the Dies Solis Invicti Nati, "the birthday of the Unconquered Sun" on December 25th for the same reason as the Iliouyænna (Heliogenna; Gr. Ηλιούγεννα). It is on or around the 25th that one can perceive the first lengthening of the daylight hours, hence the "birthday."
The Romans celebrated a feast of Diónysos, instituted by Romulus, called variously the Brumae, the Brumalia, or the Hiemalia.  It was also practiced in Greece as a foreign festival during the period of the (Roman) empire. There is confusion regarding the dates of Brumalia, some saying that it was celebrated twice a year, vix. on the 12th of the calends of March, and on the calends of September. Others say that the Brumalia was celebrated on the winter solstice or the 25th of December. 

Iliouyænna (Heliogenna; Gr. Ηλιούγεννα :    
The Iliouyænna, the Birth of the Sun, is a traditional holiday celebrated in December commencing just following the beginning of the month of Capricorn, the Winter Solstice, December 21.

More Roman Winter Festivities:  
During this same season, the Romans celebrated the birthday of Mithras and also the feast of Saturnalia, in honor of Saturn.  The Saturnalia was a very popular holiday with much feasting, gift-giving, and merriment. There was a custom of holding a banquet whereby the slaves were served by their masters, a custom which has been preserved in the military of some countries with the officers serving their troops at Christmas.

The Sabine tutelary Goddess Strenia (Salus) was honored in ancient Rome on January 1. The people exchanged various gifts (strenae) of  figs, dates, honey, branches of laurel and palm, and other things, in hope of a year of joy and happiness. The fruits were gilded. 

"MALVOLIO: I say, this house is as dark as ignorance, though
ignorance were as dark as hell; and I say, there
was never man thus abused. I am no more mad than you
are: make the trial of it in any constant question.

FESTE: What is the opinion of Pythagoras concerning wild fowl?

MALVOLIO: That the soul of our grandam might haply inhabit a bird.

FESTE: What thinkest thou of his opinion?

MALVOLIO: I think nobly of the soul, and no way approve his opinion.

FESTE: Fare thee well. Remain thou still in darkness:
thou shalt hold the opinion of Pythagoras ere I will
allow of thy wits, and fear to kill a woodcock, lest
thou dispossess the soul of thy grandam. Fare thee well." 

Δεν υπάρχουν σχόλια:

Δημοσίευση σχολίου

Popular Posts Of The Week



... ---------------------------------------------------------------------------