22.1.17

Physkos, Turkey

Marmaris is a town in Turkey, along the Mediterranean coast in the province of Muğla. It has around 28.000 inhabitants, however the population can be up to 250,000 during the height of the tourist-season.



Although it is not certain when Marmaris was founded, in the 6th century BC the site was known as Physkos (Ancient Greek: Φύσκος) and considered part of Caria.
According to the historian Herodotus, there had been a castle on the site since 3000 BC. In the 6th century BC in place of the modern city was the ancient Greek city Physkos. The city belonged to Caria and was the seaport of Mylasa.

In 334 BC, Caria was invaded by Alexander the Great and the castle of Physkos was besieged. The 600 inhabitants of the town realised that they had no chance against the invading army and burned their valuables in the castle before escaping to the hills with their women and children. The invaders, well aware of the strategic value of the castle, repaired the destroyed sections to house a few hundred soldiers before the main army returned home.

Marmaris Castle
The town became known as Marmaris during the period of the Beylik of Menteşe; the name derives from the Turkish word mermer, Greek màrmaron (marble) in reference to the rich deposits of marble in the region, and the prominent role of the town's port in the marble trade.

The Carian civilization after 300 B.C., coming under the rule of the Egyptians, Asstrians and Greeks. The Greeks turned the Carian province into 9 colony cities, also including Halicarnassos and Knidos, which became an active trading centre for Anatolia and led to an increase in handicrafts and maritime trade. 

In 138 B.C. Attalos the 3rd, King of Bergama, whose predecessors had ruled Caria for 90 years, ceded Physkos to Rome and the city was ruled from Rhodes by Roman generals.

In the mid-fifteenth century, Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror conquered and united the various tribes and kingdoms of Anatolia and the Balkans, and acquired Constantinople. The Knights of St. John, based in Rhodes had fought the Ottoman Turks for many years; they also withstood the onslaughts of Mehmed II. When sultan Suleiman the Magnificent set out for the conquest of Rhodes, Marmaris served as a base for the Ottoman Navy and Marmaris Castle was rebuilt from scratch in 1522.

Lord Nelson and his entire fleet sheltered in the harbour of Marmaris in 1798, en route to Egypt to defeat Napoleon's armada during the Mediterranean campaign.

In 1958, Marmaris was almost completely destroyed by an earthquake. Only the Marmaris Castle, and the historic buildings surrounding the fortress were left undamaged.

Since 1979, renovation work has been continuing at the castle. Under the auspices of the Ministry of Culture, the castle was converted into a museum. There are seven galleries. The largest is used as an exhibition hall, the courtyard is decorated with seasonal flowers. Built at the same time as the castle in the bazaar, there is also a small Ottoman caravanserai built by Suleiman's mother Ayşe Hafsa Sultan.
Interior of Nimara Cave on Heaven Island



Source/Photography/Bibliography
http://www.ancientencyclopedia.ga

Δεν υπάρχουν σχόλια:

Δημοσίευση σχολίου

Popular Posts Of The Week

Αναγνώστες

Translate

... ---------------------------------------------------------------------------