12.2.17

Petralona cave

Cave of Petralona

The bejewelled with stalagmites and stalactites Petralona Cave has been developed on the western side of the limestone Katsika mountain (~700 m height) and 300 m above sea level. The Cave was spotted in 1959 by the inhabitant of the adjacent village Philippos Chatzaridis and it became internationally known when the skull of Archanthropus was found by another villager, Christos Sariannidis.

The systematic excavations in the Cave started in 1965 by the founder of the Anthropological Association of Greece Ph.D. professor of anthropology Aris Poulianos. His research proved that Archanthropus (i.e. an archaic Homo sapiens) has an age of about 700.000 years ago, which is the oldest known European man. This chronology is based on the detail analysis of the Cave stratigraphy (until today 34 geological layers have been excavated). Also, it is based on the study of the Palaeolithic tools, as well as the exact diagnosis of the Palaeofauna species, which have been discovered in almost all layers.
Petralona cave and the adjacent Anthropological Museum are laying in an area of about 180 acres, 1 km to the ΝΕ of the homonymous village, on the western cliffs of the ancient Kalavros** mountain (: nowadays named Katsika***). Just 50 km to the SE of Thessaloniki, in Khalkidhiki peninsula ( Macedonia - Greece ), is the place where the eldest - known until now - Europaeoid (European) ancestors had lived.

The magazine "Intelligent Life" (Oct. 2012) reported that a world wide unique fossilized oak leave dated at 700,000 years ago is missing, but the Archaeological Service has never felt the need to provide some explanation. Herewith must also be noted that the removal of the AAGoccurred without the legally required procedure (such as delivery - collection), since it was carried sans the necessarily common recording (counting, photographing etc) of fossils, but also casts, sculptures, paintings (concerning the cave’s findings and their position in the evolution of life), as well as of all other objects. 

Since 1960, when the skull of the European Archanthropus was discovered in Khalkidhiki , dozens of scientists from around the world have selflessly participated to an atypically formed: “International Petralona research team”. The deed of this team, which may be considered as one of the most important regarding the past 50 years, was coordinated by the AAG, two palaeo-anthropologists of which, alongside to their scientific studies, had offered unpaid service for the management of the cave and the Museum.

Another 13 employers from the region, trained by AAG, also worked for the site. In this way, at least 5 European languages were available to visitors (besides those used by guides who accompanied tourists on buses).

Before the expulsion of the AAG, the admission to the public was allowed daily (including all holidays, as New Year's Day etc), from 9:00 till 16:00 during the winter and till 18:00 in the summer. However, if some tourists, especially from abroad, were to arrive shortly before the closure of the cave, the visiting time could be considerably extended (even until 21:00 during summer). In this way the state’s income was increased, creating positive impressions to the visitors, greatly restricting the unemployment problem as well.

On April 4th 2011 all 13 aforementioned employers were fired and replaced by 3-4 guards, who already had a job at ancient Olynthus , but also barely completed some primary school classes. Therefore, from the beginning they were assumed under dubious procedures and criteria (in the times of the supposedly “Green Development”). Moreover, during the past 2-3 years the entrance to the cave is allowed only from 9:00 till 14:00/15:00, but not on Mondays orpublic holidays. Meanwhile, the supervising 1 or 2 state archaeologists due to their unfortunate lack of palaeoanthropological education, distort the data concerning the preservation of the Petralona human skull and misinterpret the cave’s scientific value, consequently resulting to the misinformation of the visitors (cf. the letters of the European Anthropological Association, as well as of the International Union of Speleolog.

As possible reasons for the above actions of public servants is considered the intention of illegal "consumption" of NSRF(National Strategic Reference Framework) and / or other European funds. Besides the exertion for ownership of the AAG excavations and/or of its findings studies, the above conclusion is also possible to deduce from the fact that the marble cornerstone of the Museum has being chiseled off and removed. On this cornerstone already since 1978 it was written that the Museum was constructed after the initiative of the AAG President and the self-sacrifice of its members. So far (Jan. 2014), the existing officers of local and national authorities remain (intentionally or not) indifferent and unmoved in front of the previously referred tremendous malfunctions, perhaps because some benefits from the European subsidy is expected too (as sharing and/or redirecting them towards alien “needs”). Thus, the only hopes remaining are devolved to judicial decisions that may eliminate the already described irrational and outmost detrimental situations.

In any case, fact is that an overall surveillance of the Petralona palaeoanthropological site, along with its scientific value before the devastating onslaught of the current cave’s managers, may be acquired only through the present virtual tour.

For additional eventually information our volunteers however may be contacted at the telephone numbers in Athens : 0030-2103646793 or 0030-6936705100.
The skull of Petralona. Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki.

Discovery
The cave was discovered accidentally in 1959 by Fillipos Chatzaridis, a local shepherd who was looking for a spring. In his effort to find a water source he found a small cleft on the slopes of Mount Katsika. Two men were lowered down and later described a large number of chambers and corridors, totaling 8 to 10 meters high with rich and beautiful formations of speleothems (stalactites and stalagmites).

The cave developed during the Mesozoic (Jurassic) limestone, its sediments are divided into several stratigraphic levels. "The rock formations resemble giant cactus, pink pearls, sturdy columns or delicate curtains, and in several places water ponds are fed by stalactite material. Covering an area of 10,400 m2 (111,945 sq ft), the length of the corridors is about 2,000 m (6,562 ft) and temperature throughout the year remains stable at 17 ° C (± 1 º C)."[7] The first research of 1959 was undertaken by the Greek speleologist Ioannis Petrocheilos. He found numerous bones of animals, many of them covered with cave coral.

THE EXCAVATIONS
 Before start any discussion about the stratigraphy, it is necessary to draw a historical frame of the excavating works which took place inside the cave, in order to present the sequence of the events which allowed the extraction of the scientific data hidden in its sediments.

As formentioned, the first fossils found, were two animal teeth, which were sent by the Petralona Community to the Thessalonica University. During the following explorations of J. Petrocheilos (1959b, 1960a) several bones were also collected, but the exact number, the discovery site and their present whereabouts, remain unknown.

The next procedures were promoted by the University of Thessalonica, judging from the Introduction of the 9th volume of the Institute of Geological and Underground Research (I.G.U.R). The General Director Dr. K. Zachos (1964) quotes: "After the discovery of the Palaeoanthropus skull... studies and systematic excavations of the cave were conducted by the University of Thessaloniki and the so extracted material was elaborated by A. Kanellis... Moreover, the Hellenic Spelaeological Society is continuing its research in this interesting cave. During 1962 G. Marinos Professor of the Geological Department of Thessaloniki University and member of the Council of I.G.U.R. continued the excavations in the cave... and entrusted the studies of the fossils to the specialist of the Pleistocene mammals, Professor O. Sickenberg, of the University of Hanover".

The realization of the excavations also confirms Sickenberg (1964) and Marinos (1965). Contrary to Zachos (1964), Sickenberg (1964) indicated that they had been conducted by Prof. A. Kanellis and P. Kokkoros, while Marinos (1965) himself stated that it was J. Petrocheilos who explored the cave by a series of excavations.

Despite of the above contradictory statements, J. Petrocheilos, P. Kokkoros, A. Kanellis and G. Marinos never mention in their works any systematic excavations. According to the present evaluations it is not quite clear what exactly occurred during the years 1959-62, although the issue presents particular interest, especially regarding the relation of the various fossils collected and the sediments of the cave.

It still remains a fact though, that the results of these so called excavations have never been published, while less is known about the techniques applied. Here, it is possible to refer to a photo (No 9.27, topographic station 136 outer Mausoleum, from east towards west, fig 7.6), taken by J. Petrocheilos (1960a), where two workers are distinguished during their effort to "explore" the sediments, certainly not with the most modern techniques. 

The sentence "area of finding bones" and not an excavating area is used by J. Petrocheilos (1960a) as a legend to the photograph. At the end of the same article he added: "From the offhand excavated above deposit... it is assumed that inside the cave there exist a great number of bones... Consequently, it is necessary for the I.G.U.R. to proceed excavations in the cave... To this purpose, it will be sufficient for a geologist to follow such research for ten days with the help of one or two workers".

On the same issue, the most detailed description of these years' works comes from Kokkoros and Kanellis (1960): "At the inner part of the cave (fig. 7.2) and in it's lower point, red clay has been found mixed with destroyed bones. These bone fragments are usually decayed, fragile and mixed haphazardly with the clay. From such a mixture, the detachment of big bone fragments still in good shape, such as astragalusses, vertebras and teeth is easy... We also found two well - preserved bear skulls in a distance of about 18 m away from the point where many bones are concentrated inside the (inner) gallery, which is blocked by inclined soil, reaching up to the cave ceiling". In the same spirit, Kanellis (1962) affirmed: "The excavations conducted in the place where the human skull was found, as well as in other cave sites, showed that the fossil animal bones are concentrated towards one part of the cave... which can be revealed only by systematic research".

Similarly, Tsoukala (1989, p. 7, 3) in her Ph.D. thesis, presented at the Thessalonica University, claims that palaeontological excavations were conducted by the above referred Professors, although Tsoukala herself (1989, p. 13, 4 and p. 342, 344) affirms that the palaeontological material studied has been collected from the cave surface (and not excavated). Obviously, this is the reason why the exact location of most of the fossils she studied, is unknown.

Thus, from the bibliography, as well as from the files of the Ministry of Culture, it is evident that the University of Thessalonica never realized any systematic excavations at the Petralona cave. This was achieved later on by the anthropologist Dr. A. Poulianos, who, from the first moment the human skull was found, showed great interest, by publishing articles on Petralona (A. Poulianos 1961, 1963) and getting in contact with the Professors of the Thessalonica University, as well as with the members of the Hellenic Spelaeological Society, in order to receive a better documentation regarding the previous surface explorations.

In 1965, the year of his return to Greece after a period of studies and research at the Moscow University, A. Poulianos completed his first inspection at the Petralona cave, along with the guidance of his guest Prof. Ph. Tobias. As he wrote later (A. Poulianos 1982), he had immediately suspected the existence of stratified deposits inside the cave, not referred to previously, mainly in the sector where the human skull was found, and retained disapproved the hypothesis of Kokkoros & Kanellis (1960) and Marinos et al. (1965), according to which the calvarium was transported to the Mausoleum by running waters.

In the same year (1965), A. Poulianos became member of the Hellenic Anthropological Association (presidency of Prof. G. Koumaris), while he was already awarded for his doctorate thesis "The origin of the Greeks" (1962). He also got a position of scientific counsellor in the Ministry of Co-ordination and the Administrative Committee of the Patras University. The next year (1966) he was elected vice-president of the Hellenic Spelaeological Society and undertook the responsibility to project further explorations and systematic excavations of the Petralona cave. This project was delayed because of the coup d'etat of 1967 and Dr. A. Poulianos was removed from every state position. In spite of that, during the spring of 1968, he proceeded the first systematic excavation as the head of an expedition of the Hellenic Spelaeological Society. The permission was given to the Society by the local authorities (A. Poulianos 1968, 1971 and A. Petrocheilou 1972).

My first contact with the Petralona cave was during this 1968 mission, helping in light tasks of the excavation and penetrating in cave fissures of reduced space, almost not accessible to an adult person. This participation was in follow of a basic spelaeological training since 1966-7 in various Greek caves (see A. Poulianos 1974).

The first excavating pit has been called Section Alfa and it is dug inside the Theophrastus hall (of about 30 sq. m large and 4-6 m high), which is located to the east of the Aristotle's hall. The criteria taken into account for this hall to be excavated included the facts that: a) it is located towards the lower end of the conoid of the sediments coming from the ancient natural Pleistocene entrance and, b) its stalagmitic floor remained undisturbed by the surface explorations of the previous years.

A chain of some 40 workers was used to transport, out of the cave from Section Alfa, the excavated soil in order to be washed and lead to the preservation of the remains.

The excavation lasted a month and was compelled to be interrupted in an abrupt dictatorial way. Immediately A. Poulianos gave a press conference (18 and 19 of April 1968) presenting the preliminary results of his research, which were published in the journal of Archaeology (A. Poulianos 1971). Some years later (see newspaper "Apogeumatini" 29-6-1972) it became known that it was the General Director of the Greek Antiquities and President of the Athens Academy of Science, S. Marinatos who gave the order to interrupt the excavation and close the cave, using the excuse that the Poulianos' scientific work was disturbing the Archaeological Service. During the same time in the "Ellinikos Vorras" newspaper (22-6-1972), the Minister of Northern Greece, colonel N. Gantonas, declared that the research would be proceeded by the Professor of Geology J. Melentis, who had just been transferred to the Thessaloniki University and had no experience of the cave. However, the junta fell soon after (1974) and so the above Professor did not manage to execute any excavation, although later he tried in every way to get a priority on the Petralona research (see letters of Prof. R. Protsch, "Anthropos", 1983, 1986). Considering the above, it is obvious that Tsoukala's (1989, p. 7, 3) claims that Prof. J. Melentis collected fossils before the A. Poulianos excavations are inexact.

In the meantime (1968/9) A. Poulianos was forced to resign from the Hellenic Spelaeological Society, after the demand of its president, A. Petrocheilou - always due to the political situation - with the excuse that otherwise the H.S.S. would be endangered. Almost contemporaneously, the Hellenic Anthropological Association (H.A.A.) was dissolved by courts using various excuses. Its council members felt the need to found anew in 1970/1 the Anthropological Association of Greece (A.A.G.), electing Dr. A. Poulianos as its president.

Curiously, after the falling of junta, using a law of rehabilitation of the dictature inconveniences, Professor J. Melentis, "re-established" under his presidency the Hellenic Anthropological Association (H.A.A.) in 1976, even though he was not anthropologist and he had not faced any persecution during the time of dictature.

In 1974 A. Poulianos as president of the Anthropological Association of Greece restarted the excavations at Petralona with the permission of the Ministry of Culture, until 1983, when they were again interrupted for a second time and without been provided any excuse at all (N. Poulianos 1985). Actually, the future of the research depends on when the last Supreme Court decision (1994, 1996), which justified the Anthropological Association of Greece during its legal confrontation with the Ministries of Tourism and Culture, will be finally applied.

As concerns the works of the Anthropological Association of Greece at Petralona, the following summarized picture appears for the years 1974-1983 (see also volumes "Anthropos"):

1974/5: Repetition of the excavation of the Section Alfa, because many data got lost during the forced interruption of the research in 1968. So, another pit was dug, the Section Alfa 2, close to the Section Alfa 1. For an easier access to the cave a gallery has been opened of about 100 m and for its microclimate protection three intermediate doors were set. Also in this gallery, a small wagon was installed, to be used in the excavations, as well as in the transportation of materials necessary for the construction of adequate corridors for the visitors inside the cave. It must be noted that, this unique construction did not damage the stalagmitic surface, because the corridors are situated above the ground and they can be willingly removed or deviated within a few days.

1976: Excavations in the Section Alfa 2, Butchering hall, Abyss 1 and Section Beta. The topographic mapping of the cave was also proceeded. The lack of water and electricity in the Petralona region during the 80's generated the major difficulties for the research. The necessary water for the excavations was transported from the Sozopolis village in special containers. In the 80's the water was obtained from an underground source, about 3 Km to the south of the cave and from a depth of about 60 - 70 m, while today it is coming from the Galarino village.

1977-83: Excavations in the above mentioned areas as well as in the Mediterranean hall, Mausoleum, Abyss-2 and 3, Sections Gamma, Delta and Epsilon. The latter has been excavated from outside the cave and in correspondence to its ancient natural entrance. During the same years the Petralona cave was opened for the public (1979). In 1981, nearby the cave entrance, the A.A.G.'s Anthropological Museum was established, here the 3rd European Anthropological Congress was held in the autumn of 1982, under the presidency of A. Poulianos. This Museum is a construction of more than 1000 sq. m and its associating buildings offer the possibility to house at least thirty researchers, since in the initial plans, the foundation of an Institute of Anthropological Research was also included.


Left: the stratigraphy of Section B. Right: "hanging" stones near Mausoleum attached to the cave wall by stalagmitic material, the same way as the Archannthropus skull was found.

In the A.A.G. excavations the most modern methods were applied. Thus, for the first time small pieces of fossil wood were found, a leaf of Quercus and hairs incorporated inside very thin stalagmitic concretions, dated back to the Middle Pleistocene age. Also the refined elaboration of biostratigraphic data derived from these palaeoanthropological excavations served for the inter-correlation among many Eurasian sites.

At this point it is appropriate to mention that, the above works were financed by the Greek Organization of Tourism with an amount of 23 million drachmas, which covered only a part of the expenses. The remaining and bigger part was covered by the A.A.G. and mainly by its president Dr. A. Poulianos (see the 289/24-2-1987 Supreme Court decision and the 25-5-1988 "ANTI" journal).

1983-1996: Interruption of the works inside the Petralona cave. Any access to the excavating area and to the material deposited in the Anthropological Museum was forbidden to the A.A.G. members. Ironically, the only worker to be fired during the same period was Christos Sariannidis who found the human skull. Also, loss and robbery of fossils and of excavating diaries occurred. Likewise, clandestine intervention in some halls and stratigraphical Sections took place (A. Poulianos & N. Poulianos, 1988).

The solidarity of the European Anthropologists to the A.A.G., as much as before (Chiarelli, 1981, Bielitski et al., 1983, Gerassimova et al., 1983) and also after the second interruption of the excavations (Gray et al., 1988, Susanne et al., 1988, Henenberg, 1988), was expressed with protests and resolutions during various European Anthropological Congresses. This fact witnesses the importance and the interest of the excavations that were developed at Petralona. On the other hand, this solidarity helped the A.A.G. members to find the necessary courage to overcome many obstacles that arose by the interruption of the research, but also rendered them even more responsible towards the International Scientific Community.

The Skull
The skull of the Archanthropus was according to Aris Poulianos found by another villager, Christos Sariannidis in 1960, hanging at the wall about 30 cm (12 in) above ground, where it was held by sinter.[citation needed] Aris N. Poulianos states, that "early estimates at the time placed the age of the hominid remains to around 70,000 years". The Petralona skull, its lower jaw missing and completely "encrusted by brown calcite soon after the death of the individual" was estimated to be about 700,000 years old by Dr. Aris Poulianos, head of the excavation team since 1965. He announced that "the date was based on analyses of the cave’s stratigraphy and the accumulated sediments".

In 1981, the age of the Petralona skull deduced by Poulianos was investigated and the protocol published in the Nature journal. The scientists involved used electron spin resonance measurements of the calcite encrustation and of bone fragments and dated the age of the skull to between 160,000 and 240,000 years.However, Poulianos states that his excavations in the cave since 1968 provide evidence of human occupation from the Pleistocene era. The Petralona hominid, specifically, was located in a stratigraphic layer containing the highest amount of tools and traces of habitation. Poulianos claims that the age of the overall layer is approximately 670,000 years old, based on electron spin resonance measurements. Other researchers point out, that contextual animal fossils "found with it are known elsewhere from approximately 350,000 years ago".In 1987 researchers announced that the cranium can't be older than 620.000 years after palaeo-magnetic and mineral magnetic studies of the cave's sediments.

Layer 10
In 1992 an international team published its results of a Uranium-series dating analysis of the small cavern, called "The Mausoleum" where the skull was allegedly found and the sediments, named "Layer 10" by Poulianos. The results confirm earlier findings "that the whole of layer 10 represents a long time span, from about 160 ka to more than 350 ka". The minimum age refers to the brown calcite layer, that covered and cemented the hominid skull to the wall. The fossils encrustation is insufficient to date it by alpha-spectrometric, Uranium-series methods, yet its minimum age was concluded to be also 160.000 years.
Petralona cave tourist path

Today, most academics who have analyzed the Petralona remains classify the hominid as Homo erectus. However, the Archanthropus of Petralona has also been classified as a Homo heidelbergensis,Neanderthal (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) and as an early generic class of Homo sapiens. A. Poulianos, on the other hand, believes that the Petralona cranium is derived from an independent class of hominids unrelated to Homo erectus.

Runnels and van Andel summarise the situation as such : "The only known hominid fossil in Greece that may be relevant is the Petralona hominid, found by chance in 1960 in a deep cavern in the Chalkidiki. Controversy surrounds the interpretation of this cranium, and it has been variously classified as Homo erectus, as a classic Neanderthal (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis), and as an early representative of Homo sapiens in a generalized sense. The consensus among today's paleoanthropologists [is centered around the idea] that the cranium belongs to an archaic hominid distinguished from Homo erectus and both the classic Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans. Whatever the final classification may be, the cranium has been provisionally dated to ca. 200-400 thousand years old and it is thus possible that the Petralona hominid is a representative of the lineage responsible for the Thessalian Lower Paleolithic sites."


The Anthropological Association of Greece has continued to announce new findings in the cave, such as 4 isolated teeth, then two 800,000 year old pre-human skeletons, a great number of fossils of various species, evidence of the oldest use of fire known to this day[ and a 11 Million years old girl. Ignoring scientific methodology, these statements were to supplement wanton conclusions and pseudo-scientific theories. Serious publishers such as Nature or Science refuse to publish the Anthropological Association's submissions.

The fossils are preserved at the Geology School of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki since 1960.

Among the fossils of the extinct species found in the Cave lions, hyenas, bears, panthers, elephants, rhinos, megacerines, bisons, and various species of dears and equids are included, as well as 25 species of birds, 16 species of rodents and 17 species of bats. 

A considerable aid, in reconfirming the age of the Petralona man is the contribution of the methods advanced by nuclear physics. The material used for such a purpose were bones, argil, stalagmites and ashes. The later are traces of fire - the earliest, which have ever been lightened by human hands on earth.

Source/Photography/Bibliography/Notes

In Greek language the complex word «Petralona» (Πετράλωνα) is consisted by πέτρα - petra (: stone) and αλώνια - alonia (: threshing floors), meaning the stone threshing floors.
The complex Ancient Greek word «Kalavros» (Κάλαυρος) is consisted by καλή - kale (good) and αύρα - avra (breeze), meaning the good breeze.
In Modern Greek the word katsika (κατσίκα) means goat.
The petralona-cave.gr Website is the world’s first virtual tour for a cave. It was uploaded on the Internet during June of 2009, where the perennial AAG’s excavations, studies and works are represented. Officially it was premiered by special announcements during the works of the 15th International Congress of Speleology in Kerrville Texas on 22 and 24 July, 2009. Same Website was implemented with the symbolic aid of 25.000 euros, which was kindly granted by the EU (the Services of which posses also a copy of the Website). By comparison may be verified (see below), that the change made after the aforementioned violent removal of the AAG, concern the Webpage of General Information, the content of witch is also collocated in the Contacts.
Regardless if AAG regrets its meaningless removal from the cave’s studies, the public certainly has the right to the direct (and free) access of the relevant and internationally recognized scientific information.

https://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.aee.gr
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Bielicki T., J. Huizinga & J. Jelinek (1983) - Resolution of the 3rd European Anthropological Congress. The Proceedings of the 3rd European and 1st Panhellenic Anthropological Congresses. Anthropos, 10: 3-4. Athens.

Bonis L. de & J.Melentis (1982) - L'homme de Petralona, comparisons avec l'homme de Tautavel. 1er Congress Int. de Paleont. Humaine - Nice: 847-869.

Bostanci E. (1964) - An examination of a Neanderthal type fossil skull in the Chalcidique Peninsula. Belleten, 28:377-381. Ankara.

Breitinger E. (1964) - Der Neanderthaler von Petralona. Communication at the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Enthnological Sciences, Moscow. August 1964.

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Chiarelli B. (1981) - Letter. Anthropos, 8: 6-7. Athens.

Christaras V. (1984) - The geology of the Katsika mountain (Chalkidiki) bauxite deposits. PhD thesis Thessaloniki Un.

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Corruccini R.S.(1974) - Calvarial shape relationships between fossil hominids. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 18: 89-109.

Day M.(1982) - Letter. Nature, 300.

Day M. (1986) - Guide to fossil man. London: Cassell.

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Evaggelatos N. (1983) - Metafora ton epifaniakon isimaton tou kentrikou konou trofodosias pros to katotero klado tou spileou Petralonon. Deltion Ellinikis Spileologikis Eterias: 199-215.

Fortelius M. & N.A.Poulianos (1979) - Dicerorhinus cf. hemitoechus from the Middle Pleistocene Cave at Petralona. Anthropos, 6: 15-43. Athens.

Fortelius M. & N.A.Poulianos (1980) - Errata of "Dicerorhinus cf. hemitoechus from the Middle Pleistocene Cave at Petralona" (:Anthropos 6: 15-43, 1979). Anthropos, 7: 324-325. Athens.

Fortelius M., Mazza P. & B. Sala - (1993) Stephanorhinus (Mammalia: Rhinocerotidae) of the Western European Pleistocene, with a revision of S. etruscus (Falconer 1868). Palaeontografia Italica 80: 63-155.

Gardikas Ch. (1939) - Bauxite deposits of Macedonia. The bauxite from Creni-Chalkidiki. Ed. of Thessaloniki Un., Sch. Phys. & Math.: 1-12.

Gerassimova M.M., Lebedinskaja G.V. & G.L. Heet (1983) - The 3rd European Anthropological Congress. Sov. Ethnographia (Records), 6: 111-114.

Gray G.K.(1980) - Humanisation and the origin of Political Economy. Anthropos, 7: 296-309. Athens.

Gray G.K. (1983a) - Behaviour during humanisation. The proceedings of the 3rd European and 1st Panhellenic Anthropological Congresses. Anthropos, 10: 205-216.

Gray G. K., Hennemberg M., Kurtιn B. & M. C. Tellalian-Kyrkostas (1988) - Resolution of the 2nd Panellenic Congress of Anthropology, May 1988. Athens. Published in Anthropos (1990), v. 12: 5-8. Athens.

Hemmer H.(1972) - Notes sur la position phyletique de l'homme de Petralona. Anthropologie, 76: 155-162.

Hemmer H. (1974) - Untersuchungen zur Stammesgeschichte der PanterKatzen (Pantherinae). Teil III. Zur Aztgescichte des Lowen Panthera panthera leo (Lennaeus 1758). Verof. Zool. Staatssamlg., 17: 167-280.

Hemmer H. (1975) - Notes on the phylogenetic position of the Petralona man. J. Human Evolution, 4: 457-459.

Henemberg M. (1988) - Letter. Current Anthropology, 29 (5): 738.

Hennig G.J., U. Bangert, W.Herr & A.N. Poulianos (1980) - Uranium Series dating and T L Ages of Spelaeothem from Petralona Cave. Anthropos, 7: 174-214. Athens.

Hennig G.J., U. Bangert, W. Herr & A.N. Poulianos (1981a) - Errata of "Uranium Series dating and T L Ages of Spelaeothem from Petralona Cave. Anthropos, 7: 174-214". Anthropos, 8: 235. Athens.

Hennig G. J., W. Herr, E. Weber & N.I. Xirotiris (1981b) - ESR dating of the fossil hominid cranium from Petralona Cave. Nature, 292: 533-536.

Hennig G. J. & W. Herr & E. Weber & N.I.Xirotiris (1982) - Letter Nature, 299: 281-282.

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