18.2.17

Pottery of Ancient Greece

The pottery made in Greece between about 1000 and 300 BC has been preserved in large quantities. Most examples come from graves discovered not only in Greece, but also in many parts of the Mediterranean region, particularly in Italy, where pottery was exported in large quantities in antiquity.

Shapes
Alabastron
Amphora
Amphoriskos
Aryballos
Askos
Astragalos
Bail Vase
Ball
Balsamarion
Basin
Basket
Beaker
Bobbin
Bolsal
Bottle
Bowl
Brazier
Canopic Jar
Chalice
Chous
Cista
Cup
Cup Skyphos Fragment
Cylinder
Die
Dinos
Disc
Dish
Dolium
Drinking Horn
Epichysis
Epinetron
Exaleiptron
Feeder
Figure Vase
Fish-Plate
Flask
Funnel
Granary
Guttus
Hydria
Kalathos
Kantharos
Kernos
Klepsydra
Kothon
Kotyle
Krater
Krater, Bell
Krater, Calyx
Krater, Column
Krater, Volute
Kyathos
Lagynos
Lakaina
Lamp
Lebes
Lebes Gamikos
Lekanis
Lekythos
Lekythos, Squat
Lid
Loom Weight
Louterion
Loutrophoros
Lydion
Mastoid
Mastos
Medallion
Mug
Nestoris
Oinochoe
Olla
Olpe
Oon
Panathenaic Amphora
Patera
Pelike
Phiale
Phormiskos
Pinax
Pithos
Plaque
Plate
Plemochoe
Pomegranate
Psykter
Pyxis
Rattle
Sieve
Situla
Skyphos
Spinning Top
Sprinkler
Stamnos
Stand
Stirrup Jar
Strainer
Tray
Tripod
Trozzella
Unguentarium

The 'fine' pottery with figure decoration, especially that made in Athens between about 625 and 300 BC, is of great importance to archaeologists and historians because shapes and styles of decoration can be dated closely, often to within twenty years of manufacture.

The ability of scholars to recognise individual painters who lived more than 2500 years ago, in the absence of signatures and contemporary literary documentation, has made the study of Greek figure-decorated pottery a subject in the History of Art. The connoisseurship of Greek, particularly Athenian, vases is a model of excellence, combining close personal examination of the objects with rigorous documentation of shapes, techniques, and styles of decoration.

Ancient Greek pottery, due to its relative durability, comprises a large part of the archaeological record of ancient Greece, and since there is so much of it (over 100,000 vases are recorded in the Corpus vasorum antiquorum), it has exerted a disproportionately large influence on our understanding of Greek society. 

The shards of pots discarded or buried in the 1st millennium BC are still the best guide we have to the customary life and mind of the ancient Greeks. There were several vessels produced locally for everyday and kitchen use, yet finer pottery from regions such as Attica was imported by other civilizations throughout the Mediterranean, such as the Etruscans in Italy.There were various specific regional varieties, such as the South Italian ancient Greek pottery.

Throughout these places, various types and shapes of vases were used. Not all were purely utilitarian; large Geometric amphorae were used as grave markers, kraters in Apulia served as tomb offerings and Panathenaic Amphorae seem to have been looked on partly as objets d’art, as were later terracotta figurines. Some were highly decorative and meant for elite consumption and domestic beautification as much as serving a storage or other function, such as the krater with its usual use in diluting wine.

Earlier Greek styles of pottery, called "Aegean" rather than "Ancient Greek", include Minoan pottery, very sophisticated by its final stages, Cycladic pottery, Minyan ware and then Mycenaean pottery in the Bronze Age, followed by the cultural disruption of the Greek Dark Age. As the culture recovered Sub-Mycenaean pottery finally blended into the Protogeometric style, which begins Ancient Greek pottery proper.

The rise of vase painting saw increasing decoration. Geometric art in Greek pottery was contiguous with the late Dark Age and early Archaic Greece, which saw the rise of the Orientalizing period. The pottery produced in Archaic and Classical Greece included at first black-figure pottery, yet other styles emerged such as red-figure pottery and the white ground technique. Styles such as West Slope Ware were characteristic of the subsequent Hellenistic period, which saw vase painting's decline.

Interest in Greek art lagged behind the revival of classical scholarship during the Renaissance and revived in the academic circle round Nicholas Poussin in Rome in the 1630s. Though modest collections of vases recovered from ancient tombs in Italy were made in the 15th and 16th centuries these were regarded as Etruscan. It is possible that Lorenzo de Medici bought several Attic vases directly from Greece; however the connection between them and the examples excavated in central Italy was not made until much later. Winckelmann's Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums of 1764 first refuted the Etruscan origin of what we now know to be Greek pottery yet Sir William Hamilton's two collections, one lost at sea the other now in the British Museum, were still published as "Etruscan vases"; it would take until 1837 with Stackelberg's Gräber der Hellenen to conclusively end the controversy.
Disjecta membra (a fragment of ancient Greek pottery)

Much of the early study of Greek vases took the form of production of albums of the images they depict, however neither D'Hancarville's nor Tischbein's folios record the shapes or attempt to supply a date and are therefore unreliable as an archaeological record. Serious attempts at scholary study made steady progress over the 19th century starting with the founding of the Instituto di Corrispondenza in Rome in 1828 (later the German Archaeological Institute), followed by Eduard Gerhard's pioneering study Auserlesene Griechische Vasenbilder (1840 to 1858), the establishment of the journal Archaeologische Zeitung in 1843 and the Ecole d'Athens 1846. It was Gerhard who first outlined the chronology we now use, namely: Orientalizing (Geometric, Archaic), Black Figure, Red Figure, Polychromatic (Hellenistic).

Finally it was Otto Jahn's 1854 catalogue Vasensammlung of the Pinakothek, Munich, that set the standard for the scientific description of Greek pottery, recording the shapes and inscriptions with a previously unseen fastidousness. Jahn's study was the standard textbook on the history and chronology of Greek pottery for many years, yet in common with Gerhard he dated the introduction of the red figure technique to a century later than was in fact the case. This error was corrected when the Aρχαιολογικη 'Εταιρεια undertook the excavation of the Acropolis in 1885 and discovered the so-called "Persian debris" of red figure pots destroyed by Persian invaders in 480 BC. With a more soundly established chronology it was possible for Adolf Furtwängler and his students in the 1880s and 90s to date the strata of his archaeological digs by the nature of the pottery found within them, a method of seriation Flinders Petrie was later to apply to unpainted Egyptian pottery.

Where the 19th century was a period of discovery and the laying out of first principles the 20th century has been one of consolidation and intellectual industry. Efforts to record and publish the totality of public collections of vases began with the creation of the Corpus vasorum antiquorum under Edmond Pottier and the Beazley archive of John Beazley.

Beazley and others following him have also studied fragments of Greek pottery in institutional collections, and have attributed many painted pieces to individual artists. Scholars have called these fragments disjecta membra (Latin for "scattered parts") and in a number of instances have been able to identify fragments now in different collections that belong to the same vase. ptery.

Uses and types
The names we use for Greek vase shapes are often a matter of convention rather than historical fact, a few do illustrate their own use or are labeled with their original names, others are the result of early archaeologists attempt to reconcile the physical object with a known name from Greek literature – not always successfully. To understand the relationship between form and function Greek pottery may be divided in four broad categories, given here with common types:
  • storage and transport vessels, including the amphora, pithos, pelike, hydria, pyxis,
  • mixing vessels, mainly for symposia or male drinking parties, including the krater, and dinos,
  • jugs and cups, several types of kylix also just called cups, kantharos, phiale, skyphos, oinochoe and loutrophoros,
  • vases for oils, perfumes and cosmetics, including the large lekythos, and the small aryballos and alabastron.
Some vase shapes were especially associated with rituals, others with athletics and the gymnasium. Within each category the forms are roughly the same in scale and whether open or closed, where there is uncertainty we can make good proximate guesses of what use a piece would have served. Some have a purely ritual function, for example white ground lekythoi contained the oil used as funerary offerings and appear to have been made solely with that object in mind. Many examples have a concealed second cup inside them to give the impression of being full of oil, as such they would have served no other useful gain.
Diagram of the parts of a typical Athenian vase, in this case a volute krater

There was an international market for Greek pottery since the 8th century BC, which Athens and Corinth dominated down to the end of the 4th century BC. An idea of the extent of this trade can be gleaned from plotting the find maps of these vases outside of Greece, though this could not account for gifts or immigration. Only the existence of a second hand market could account for the number of panathenaics found in Etruscan tombs. South Italian wares came to dominate the export trade in the Western Mediterranean as Athens declined in political importance during the Hellenistic period.

Timescale
Greek painted pottery has a long history. Conventionally the earliest examples are dated around 1000BC, the latest around 300BC. The tradition can be traced back, to Bronze Age (Cretan and Mycenean) ceramics, and carried on through later Hellenistic, but both of these groups are sufficiently different from the main sequence that they tend to be studied separately.


What holds the main sequence together? The answer is political, social, and economic history, as much as knowledge of potting and painting handed down through generations. Conventionally the finer pottery of these 700 years is divided into groups, by centuries or half, even quarter, centuries, according to styles and techniques of decoration. Because the pottery can be dated closely, often to within 20 or 25 years, through absolute and relative dates, there is a tendency to use it to date other types of objects, found both in Greece and in lands where Greeks travelled, traded and settled. There is also a tendency to use terms adopted for styles of pottery decoration to denote periods of time. For example, people often speak of 'Geometric Greece', but this terminology is not precise and should be avoided; 'Geometric Athens' is not the same chronologically as 'Geometric Corinth'.

Clay
The process of making a pot and firing it is fairly simple. The first thing a potter needs is clay. Attica's high-iron clay gave its pots an orange color.

Manufacture
Levigation
When clay is first dug out of the ground it is full of rocks and shells and other useless items that need to be removed. To do this the potter mixes the clay with water and lets all the impurities sink to the bottom. This is called levigation or elutriation. This process can be done many times. The more times this is done, the smoother clay becomes.

Wheel
The clay is then kneaded by the potter and placed on a wheel. Once the clay is on the wheel the potter can shape it into any of the many shapes shown below, or anything else he desires. Wheel made pottery dates back to roughly 2500 BC where before the coil method of building the walls of the pot was employed. Most Greek vases were wheel-made, though as with the Rhyton mould-made pieces (so-called "plastic" pieces) are also found and decorative elements either hand formed or by mould were added to thrown pots. More complex pieces were made in parts then assembled when it was leather hard by means of joining with a slip, where the potter returned to the wheel for the final shaping, or turning. Sometimes, a young man helped turn the wheel.

Slip
The pots were usually made in sections such as the body and feet and spout. Even the body, if it were larger than 20 centimeters, might be made in separate sections and glued together later with a thin watery clay called slip. After the pot is made then the potter paints it with a very pure black slip made from a specially prepared clay using brushes made from a single hair. It was thus slipped and then incised ready for the kiln.

Firing
Previously it was believed that Greek pottery, unlike today's pottery, was only fired once, but that firing had three stages. New studies instead provide material evidence that the pottery was made with two or more separate firings  in which the pottery is subjected to multiple firing stages. The most commonly described sequence of firing stages is one in which the pottery is stacked inside the kiln the potter heats the kiln up to around 800 °C with all the vents on the sides open to let air in. This turns the pottery and the paint red all over. Once the kiln reaches 800 °C the vents are closed and the temperature is raised to 950 °C and then allowed to drop back to 900 °C. This turns the pottery and the paint all black. The potter then starts the third and final phase by opening the vents and allowing the kiln to cool all the way down. This last phase leaves the slip black but turns the pottery back to red. This happens because when the clay is given air it turns red, but when the black slip is heated to 950 °C it no longer allows air in. Thus, the slipped area stays black while the bare areas stay red. While the description of a single firing with three stages may seem economical and efficient, it is equally possible that each of these stages was confined to separate firings.
A potter's workshop. Side B from a Corinthian black-figure pinax, ca. 575–550

The striking black slip with a metallic sheen, so characteristic of Greek pottery, was a fine suspension (colloidal fraction) of an illitic clay with very low calcium oxide content which was rich in iron oxides and hydroxides, differentiating from that used for the body of the vase in terms of the calcium content, the exact mineral composition and the particle size. This clay suspension was most probably collected in situ from illitic clay beds and was then processed through levigation. To aid in the levigation step, it is likely that the Attic black slip was treated with deflocculants as indicated by trace levels of contaminants to the clay, such as Zn associated with vitriol. This clay suspension was thickened by concentration to a paste and was used for the decoration of the surface of the vase. The paint was applied on the areas intended to become black after firing.

The black color effect was achieved by means of changing the amount of oxygen present during firing. This was done in a process known as three-phase firing and was likely accomplished with multiple firings of the pottery. First, the kiln was heated to around 920–950 °C, with all vents open bringing oxygen into the firing chamber and turning both pot and slip a reddish-brown (oxidising conditions) due to the formation of hematite (Fe2O3) in both the paint and the clay body. Then the vent was closed and green wood introduced, creating carbon monoxide which turns the red hematite to black magnetite (Fe3O4); at this stage the temperature decreases due to incomplete combustion. In a final reoxidizing phase (at about 800–850 °C) the kiln was opened and oxygen reintroduced causing the unslipped reserved clay to go back to orange-red. In the previous phase, chemical composition of the slipped surface had been altered, so it could no longer be oxidized and remained black. The technique which is mostly known as the "iron reduction technique" was decoded with the contribution of scholars, ceramists and scientists since the mid 18th century onwards to the end of 20th century, i.e. Comte de Caylus (1752), Durand-Greville (1891), Binns and Fraser (1925), Schumann (1942), Winter (1959), Bimson (1956), Noble (1960, 1965), Hofmann (1962), Oberlies (1968), Pavicevic (1974), Aloupi (1993), Walton (2009), Walton (2014).

Vase painting
The most familiar aspect of ancient Greek pottery is painted vessels of fine quality. These were not the everyday pottery used by most people, but were sufficiently cheap to be accessible to a wide range of the population.
Black-figure amphora by Exekias, Achilles and Ajax engaged in a game, c. 540–530 BC

Few examples of ancient Greek painting have survived so modern scholars have to trace the development of ancient Greek art partly through ancient Greek vase-painting, which survives in large quantities, and is also, with Ancient Greek literature, the best guide we have to the customary life and mind of the ancient Greeks.
Bilingual amphora by the Andokides Painter, c. 520 BC (Munich)

Development of pottery painting

Bronze Age
Fine painting on Greek pottery goes back to the Minoan pottery and Mycenaean pottery of the Bronze Age, some later examples of which show the ambitious figurative painting that was to become highly developed and typical. After many centuries dominated by styles of geometric decoration, becoming increasingly complex, figurative elements returned in force in the 8th century. From the late 7th century to about 300 BC evolving styles of figure-led painting were at their peak of production and quality, and were widely exported.

During the Greek Dark Age, spanning the 11th to 8th centuries BC, the prevalent early style was that of the protogeometric art, predominantly utilizing circular and wavy decorative patterns. This was succeeded in mainland Greece, the Aegean, Anatolia, and Italy by the style of pottery known as geometric art, which employed neat rows of geometric shapes.



The period of Archaic Greece, beginning in the 8th century BC and lasting until the late 5th century BC, saw the birth of Orientalizing period, led largely by ancient Corinth, where the previous stick-figures of the geometric pottery become fleshed out amid motifs that replaced the geometric patterns.

Protogeometric styles
Vases of the protogeometrical period (c. 1050–900 BC) represent the return of craft production after the collapse of the Mycenaean Palace culture and the ensuing Greek dark ages. It is one of the few modes of artistic expression besides jewelry in this period since the sculpture, monumental architecture and mural painting of this era are unknown to us. By 1050 BC life in the Greek peninsula seems to have become sufficiently settled to allow a marked improvement in the production of earthenware.
Protogeometric amphora

The style is confined to the rendering of circles, triangles, wavy lines and arcs, but placed with evident consideration and notable dexterity, probably aided by compass' and multiple brushes. The site of Lefkandi is one of our most important sources of ceramics from this period where a cache of grave goods has been found giving evidence of a distinctive Euboian protogeometric style which lasted into the early 8th century.

Geometric style
Geometric art flourished in the 9th and 8th centuries BC. It was characterized by new motifs, breaking with the representation of the Minoan and Mycenaean periods: meanders, triangles and other geometrical decoration (hence the name of the style) as distinct from the predominantly circular figures of the previous style. However, our chronology for this new art form comes from exported wares found in datable contexts overseas.
Boeotian hydria with birds, ca. 700 BC–675 BC (Boeotian Geometric).

With the early geometrical style (approximately 900–850 BC) one finds only abstract motifs, in what is called the "Black Dipylon" style, which is characterized by an extensive use of black varnish, with the Middle Geometrical (approx. 850–770 BC), figurative decoration makes its appearance: they are initially identical bands of animals such as horses, stags, goats, geese, etc. which alternate with the geometrical bands. In parallel, the decoration becomes complicated and becomes increasingly ornate; the painter feels reluctant to leave empty spaces and fills them with meanders or swastikas. This phase is named horror vacui (fear of the empty) and will not cease until the end of geometrical period.
The Dipylon Amphora

In the middle of the century there begin to appear human figures, the best known representations of which are those of the vases found in Dipylon, one of the cemeteries of Athens. The fragments of these large funerary vases show mainly processions of chariots or warriors or of the funerary scenes: πρόθεσις / prothesis (exposure and lamentation of dead) or ἐκφορά / ekphora (transport of the coffin to the cemetery). The bodies are represented in a geometrical way except for the calves, which are rather protuberant. In the case of soldiers, a shield in form of a diabolo, called “dipylon shield” because of its characteristic drawing, covers the central part of the body. The legs and the necks of the horses, the wheels of the chariots are represented one beside the other without perspective. The hand of this painter, so called in the absence of signature, is the Dipylon Master, could be identified on several pieces, in particular monumental amphorae.

At the end of the period there appear representations of mythology, probably at the moment when Homer codifies the traditions of Trojan cycle in the Iliad and the Odyssey. Here however the interpretation constitutes a risk for the modern observer: a confrontation between two warriors can be a Homeric duel or simple combat; a failed boat can represent the shipwreck of Odysseus or any hapless sailor.

Lastly, are the local schools that appear in Greece. Production of vases was largely the prerogative of Athens – it is well attested that as in the proto-geometrical period, in Corinth, Boeotia, Argos, Crete and Cyclades, the painters and potters were satisfied to follow the Attic style. From about the 8th century BC on, they created their own styles, Argos specializing in the figurative scenes, Crete remaining attached to a more strict abstraction.

Orientalizing style
The orientalizing style was the product of cultural ferment in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean of the 8th and 7th centuries BC. Fostered by trade links with the city-states of Asia Minor, the artifacts of the East influenced a highly stylized yet recognizable representational art.
Protocorinthian skyphos, c. 625 BC, Louvre

Ivories, pottery and metalwork from the Neo-Hittite principalities of northern Syria and Phoenicia found their way to Greece, as did goods from Anatolian Urartu and Phrygia, yet there was little contact with the cultural centers of Egypt or Assyria. The new idiom developed initially in Corinth (as Proto-Corinthian) and later in Athens between 725 BC and 625 BC (as Proto-Attic).

It was characterized by an expanded vocabulary of motifs: sphinx, griffin, lions, etc., as well as a repertory of non-mythological animals arranged in friezes across the belly of the vase. In these friezes, painters also began to apply lotuses or palmettes.
Proto-Corinthian olpe with registers of lions, bulls, ibex and sphinxes, c. 640–630 BC, Louvre

Depictions of humans were relatively rare. Those that have been found are figures in silhouette with some incised detail, perhaps the origin of the incised silhouette figures of the black-figure period. There is sufficient detail on these figures to allow scholars to discern a number of different artists' hands. Geometrical features remained in the style called proto-Corinthian that embraced these orientalizing experiments, yet which coexisted with a conservative sub-geometric style.

The ceramics of Corinth were exported all over Greece, and their technique arrived in Athens, prompting the development of a less markedly Eastern idiom there. During this time described as Proto-Attic, the orientalizing motifs appear but the features remain not very realistic. The painters show a preference for the typical scenes of the Geometrical Period, like processions of chariots. However, they adopt the principle of line drawing to replace the silhouette. In the middle of 7th century BC, there appears the black and white style: black figures on a white zone, accompanied by polychromy to render the color of the flesh or clothing. Clay used in Athens was much more orange than that of Corinth, and so did not lend itself as easily to the representation of flesh. Attic Orientalising Painters include the Analatos Painter, the Mesogeia Painter and the Polyphemos Painter.

Crete, and especially the islands of the Cyclades, are characterized by their attraction to the vases known as “plastic”, i.e. those whose paunch or collar is moulded in the shape of head of an animal or a man. At Aegina, the most popular form of the plastic vase is the head of the griffin. The Melanesian amphoras, manufactured at Paros, exhibit little knowledge of Corinthian developments. They present a marked taste for the epic composition and a horror vacui, which is expressed in an abundance of swastikas and meanders.

Finally one can identify the last major style of the period, that of Wild Goat Style, allotted traditionally to Rhodes because of an important discovery within the necropolis of Kameiros. In fact, it is widespread over all of Asia Minor, with centers of production at Miletos and Chios. Two forms prevail: oenochoes, which copied bronze models, and dishes, with or without feet. The decoration is organized in superimposed registers in which stylized animals, in particular of feral goats (from whence the name) pursue each other in friezes. Many decorative motifs (floral triangles, swastikas, etc.) fill the empty spaces.

Attic vase painting
The subject is dominated mostly by Attic vase painting. Attic production was the first to resume after the Greek Dark Age and influenced the rest of Greece, especially Boeotia, Corinth, the Cyclades (in particular Naxos) and the Ionian colonies in the east Aegean. Production of vases was largely the prerogative of Athens – it is well attested that in Corinth, Boeotia, Argos, Crete and Cyclades, the painters and potters were satisfied to follow the Attic style.

By the end of the Archaic period the styles of black-figure pottery, red-figure pottery, and the white ground technique had become fully established and would continue in use during the era of Classical Greece, from the early 5th to late 4th centuries BC. Corinth was eclipsed by Athenian trends, since Athens was the progenitor of both the red-figure and white ground styles.

Athenian Pottery

The coloured bars above are in course of activation in order to provide more information about Athenian styles. At present a few examples are available which can be accessed by clicking. These will be supplemented by a fuller range of images of Athenian pottery held in the Ashmolean Museum.

Corinthian pottery
Although never as artistically celebrated as Athens nor as militarily renowned as Sparta, the city-state of Corinth was nevertheless a major player in the renaissance of Greece during the first millennium BC, contributing particularly to the development of visual arts which reached its zenith in the 5th century BC. Her favourable geographical location - situated on the Isthmus between the Peloponnese and Attica, with easy access to the Adriatic in the west and the Aegean in the east - and peculiar ability to prosper supported a checkered history from Neolithic times right through to and beyond the sack of Corinth by the Romans in 146BC.

Pausanias' account of his visit to Corinth in the 2nd century AD records the variety of myths long associated with the area - the Sow of Krommyon slain by Theseus, the brigand Sinis who tore his victims apart between two flexed pine trees, the foundation of the Isthmian Games by Sisyphus - as well as the many ancient buildings still standing, from the archaic Temple of Apollo to the Springs of Peirene, from the rich Agora to the Sanctuary of Aphrodite. Strabo's term for these relics of the earlier city, 'Necrocorinthia', was used by Humfrey Payne as the title for his important 1933 book on Corinthian pottery.

From the 8th century BC, many other local settlements were attracted by the rich coastal plain, the numerous springs, the ports of Lechaion and Kenchriai, and the steep acropolis of Acrocorinth affording protection, with the result that Corinth was in a position to expand, establishing colonies overseas, most notably on Corfu and Sicily, and to pursue greater foreign trade.

The first modern archaeological excavation was undertaken by the Germans in 1886. From 1896 systematic excavations were continued by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Some Late Bronze Age Mycenaean and early Iron Age Protogeometric pottery has been discovered, but it is the later Geometric style that is well represented. Corinthian vases made in the first half of the 8th century BC have been found at the nearby sanctuary of Perachora and Delphi further along the Corinthian Gulf, at Aetos on Corfu, and throughout Sicily and South Italy, providing archaeologists with evidence for Corinthian exploration of sea routes and for the dating of sites.

In the late 8th century, when the Geometric style was coming to an end, Corinthian contact with the Near East was a stimulus for the Orientalizing style of Greek pottery. Evidence from excavation of the 'potters' quarter', one mile west of Corinth, would seem to support this resurgent interest in painted wares. The traditionally angular geometric patterns were being replaced with the curvaceous flora and fauna that typify the Protocorinthian style. For much of the 7th and 6th centuries Corinth led the Greek world in producing and exporting pottery.

When Attic wares superceded Corinthian in the mid-6th century, Corinth had left a significant legacy of artistic developments, not only in pottery, but also in architecture, which had thrived under the powerful, aristocratic, Bacchiad family, as Herodotus describes. A monarchy was established by Kypselos in 657, whose successor, Periander, may have been responsible for constructing the stone track (diolkos) by which ships were dragged across the Isthmus. Many wars throughout the ensuing centuries eroded Corinth's resources, and the city fell to Philip of Macedon in 338. Her participation with the Achaean Confederacy in the Second Macedonian War eventually led to her sack in 146, but Corinth was refounded as a Roman colony. By the time Paul had established an early Christian church there in the late 1st century AD, Corinth was once again a splendid city.

The interest in Corinth expressed by Pausanias and other ancient writers seems to have continued into more modern times. In 1436, Cyriac of Ancona recorded what he saw on his visit to the town, and a series of British travellers followed, including George Wheler (1676), accompanied by the French antiquarian Jacob Spon, James 'Athenian' Stuart (1766), Richard Chandler (1776), William Leake and Edward Dodwell (1801-1806).

In more recent times, the finer pottery made in Corinth between 750BC and 550BC has come to be studied by many scholars, not least by the American excavators, who have published the series Corinth, Results of excavations conducted by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens since 1929. In 1931, Humfry Payne (1902-36) published Necrocorinthia, which he dedicated to Sir John Beazley, his teacher at Oxford. Payne's work established the modern study of archaic and classical Corinthian pottery. By taking advantage of recent and highly significant archaeological discoveries, he was able to make a more substantial contribution than the earlier German scholars, Pfuhl and Buschor, and the Dane, Johansen.

In 1929, when Payne went to Athens as Director of the British School of Archaeology, the Americans excavated the 'potters' quarter' at Corinth. Payne led the British excavation of the nearby sanctuary site of Perachora. Both yielded quantities of Corinthian pottery, as did the slightly earlier British excavations at Sparta and the nearby sanctuary of Artemis Orthia.

Payne's study places archaeological material in historical context and relates pottery to other types of material evidence. Many later studies of Corinthian pottery, most notably those of Benson and Amyx, have concentrated on analysing the personal styles of individual painters, a venture which Payne tended to consider 'a somewhat unremunerative task'.

Particular study on the earlier, and largely linear, 8th century style has been conducted by, among others, Coldstream in Greek Geometric Pottery (1968).

Black figure
Black-figure is the most commonly imagined when one thinks about Greek pottery. It was a popular style in ancient Greece for many years. The black-figure period coincides approximately with the era designated by Winckelmann as the middle to late Archaic, from c. 620 to 480 BC.
Achilles and Penthesileia by Exekias, c. 540 BC, BM. London.

The technique of incising silhouetted figures with enlivening detail which we now call the black-figure method was, as we saw, a Corinthian invention of the 7th century and spread from there to other city states and regions including Sparta, Boeotia, Euboea, the east Greek islands and Athens.

The Corinthian fabric, extensively studied by Humfry Payne and Darrell Amyx, can be traced though the parallel treatment of animal and human figures. The animal motifs have greater prominence on the vase and show the greatest experimentation in the early phase of Corinthian black-figure.

As Corinthian artists gained in confidence in their rendering of the human figure the animal frieze declined in size relative to the human scene during the middle to late phase. By the mid-6th century BC, the quality of Corinthian ware had fallen away significantly to the extent that some Corinthian potters would disguise their pots with a red slip in imitation of superior Athenian ware.
At Athens researchers have found the earliest known examples of vase painters signing their work, the first being a dinos by Sophilos (illus. below, BM c. 580), this perhaps indicative of their increasing ambition as artists in producing the monumental work demanded as grave markers, as for example with Kleitias's François Vase. Many scholars consider the finest work in the style to belong Exekias and the Amasis Painter, who are noted for their feeling for composition and narrative.

Circa 520 BC the red-figure technique was developed and was gradually introduced in the form of the bilingual vase by the Andokides Painter, Oltos and Psiax. Red-figure quickly eclipsed black-figure, yet in the unique form of the Panathanaic Amphora, black-figure continued to be utilised well into the 4th century BC.

Red figure
The innovation of the red-figure technique was an Athenian invention of the late 6th century. It was quite the opposite of black-figure which had a red background. The ability to render detail by direct painting rather than incision offered new expressive possibilities to artists such as three-quarter profiles, greater anatomical detail and the representation of perspective.

The first generation of red-figure painters worked in both red- and black-figure as well as other methods including Six's technique and white-ground; the latter was developed at the same time as red-figure. However, within twenty years, experimentation had given way to specialization as seen in the vases of the Pioneer Group, whose figural work was exclusively in red-figure, though they retained the use of black-figure for some early floral ornamentation.
Reveller and courtesan by Euphronios, c. 500 BC, BM E 44

The shared values and goals of The Pioneers such as Euphronios and Euthymides signal that they were something approaching a self-conscious movement, though they left behind no testament other than their own work. John Boardman said of the research on their work that "the reconstruction of their careers, common purpose, even rivalries, can be taken as an archaeological triumph"

The next generation of late Archaic vase painters (c. 500 to 480 BC) brought an increasing naturalism to the style as seen in the gradual change of the profile eye. This phase also sees the specialization of painters into pot and cup painters, with the Berlin and Kleophrades Painters notable in the former category and Douris and Onesimos in the latter.

By the early to high classical era of red-figure painting (c. 480–425 BC), a number of distinct schools had evolved. The mannerists associated with the workshop of Myson and exemplified by the Pan Painter hold to the archaic features of stiff drapery and awkward poses and combine that with exaggerated gestures.
This rhyton — used for drinking wine — is shaped like a donkey's head on one side of its body and a ram's on the other. ca. 450 BC. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

By contrast, the school of the Berlin Painter in the form of the Achilles Painter and his peers (who may have been the Berlin Painter’s pupils) favoured a naturalistic pose usually of a single figure against a solid black background or of restrained white-ground lekythoi. Polygnotos and the Kleophon Painter can be included in the school of the Niobid Painter, as their work indicates something of the influence of the Parthenon sculptures both in theme (e.g., Polygnotos’s centauromachy, Brussels, Musées Royaux A. & Hist., A 134) and in feeling for composition.

Toward the end of the century, the "Rich" style of Attic sculpture as seen in the Nike Balustrade is reflected in contemporary vase painting with an ever-greater attention to incidental detail, such as hair and jewellery. The Meidias Painter is usually most closely identified with this style.
Neck amphora depicting an athlete running the hoplitodromos by the Berlin Painter, c. 480 BC, Louvre

Vase production in Athens stopped around 330–320 BC possibly due to Alexander the Great's control of the city, and had been in slow decline over the 4th century along with the political fortunes of Athens itself. However, vase production continued in the 4th and 3rd centuries in the Greek colonies of southern Italy where five regional styles may be distinguished. These are the Apulian, Lucanian, Sicilian, Campanian and Paestan. Red-figure work flourished there with the distinctive addition of polychromatic painting and in the case of the Black Sea colony of Panticapeum the gilded work of the Kerch Style. Several noteworthy artists' work comes down to us including the Darius Painter and the Underworld Painter, both active in the late 4th century, whose crowded polychromatic scenes often essay a complexity of emotion not attempted by earlier painters. Their work represents a late mannerist phase to the achievement of Greek vase painting.

White ground technique
The white-ground technique was developed at the end of the 6th century BC.
Raging maenad by the Brygos Painter. She holds a thyrsos in her right hand, her left is swinging a panther through the air. A snake is winding through the diadem in her hair. Tondo of a kylix, 490–480 BC. Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen.

Unlike the better-known black-figure and red-figure techniques, its coloration was not achieved through the application and firing of slips but through the use of paints and gilding on a surface of white clay. It allowed for a higher level of polychromy than the other techniques, although the vases end up less visually striking. The technique gained great importance during the 5th and 4th centuries, especially in the form of small lekythoi that became typical grave offerings. Important representatives include its inventor, the Achilles Painter, as well as Psiax, the Pistoxenos Painter and the Thanatos Painter.

Relief and plastic vases
Relief and plastic vases became particularly popular in the 4th century BC and continued being manufactured in the Hellenistic period. They were inspired by the so-called "rich style" developed mainly in Attica after 420 BC. The main features were the multi-figured compositions with use of added colours (pink/reddish, blue, green, gold)and an emphasis on female mythological figures. Theatre and performing constituted yet one more source of inspiration.

Delphi Archaeological Museum has some particularly good examples of this style, including a vase with Aphrodite and Eros. The base is round, cylindrical, and its handle vertical, with bands, covered with black colour. The female figure (Aphrodite) is depicted seated, wearing an himation. Next to her stands a male figure, naked and winged. Both figures wear wreaths made of leaves and their hair preserve traces of golden paint. The features of their faces are stylized. The vase has a white ground and maintains in several parts the traces of bluish, greenish and reddish paint. It dates to the 4th century BC.

In the same room is kept a small lekythos with a plastic decoration, depicting a winged dancer. The figure wears a Persian head cover and an oriental dress, indicating that already in that period oriental dancers, possibly slaves, had become quite fashionable. The figure is also covered with a white colour. The total height of the vase is 18 centimeters and it dates to the 4th century BC.

Hellenistic period
The Hellenistic period, ushered in by the conquests of Alexander the Great, saw the virtual disappearance of black and red-figure pottery yet also the emergence of new styles such as West Slope Ware in the east, the Centuripe Ware in Sicily, and the Gnathia vases to the west. Outside of mainland Greece other regional Greek traditions developed, such as those in Magna Graecia with the various styles in South Italy, including Apulian, Lucanian, Paestan, Campanian, and Sicilian.

Inscriptions
Inscriptions on Greek pottery are of two kinds; the incised (the earliest of which are contemporary with the beginnings of the Greek alphabet in the 8th century BC), and the painted, which only begin to appear a century later. Both forms are relatively common on painted vases until the Hellenistic period when the practice of inscribing pots seems to die out. They are by far most frequently found on Attic pottery.
The so-called "Memnon pieta", Ancient Greek Attic red-figure cup, c. 490 – 480 BC, from Capua. Inscriptions on the left: (ΕΕΝΕΜΕΚΝΕRINE (meaning unclear), HERMOΓΕΝΕS KALOS ("Hermogenes kalos" – "Hermogenes is beautiful"). Inscriptions on the right: HEOS ("Eos"), ΔΟRIS EΓRAΦSEN ("Doris Egraphsen" – Do(u)ris painted it). Inscription on the right: MEMNON ("Memnon"), KALIAΔES EΠOIESEN ("Kaliades epoiesen" – Kaliades made it). Musée du Louvre, G 155.

A number of sub-classes of inscription can be distinguished. Potters and painters occasionally signed their works with epoiesen and egraphsen respectively. Trademarks are found from the start of the 6th century on Corinthian pieces; these may have belonged to an exporting merchant rather than the pottery workfield and this remains a matter of conjecture.) Patrons' names are also sometimes recorded, as are the names of characters and objects depicted.
Black-figure dinos with stand, Attic, ca. 570 BC. Signed by Sophilos: ΣΟΦΙΛΟΣ [...] ΜΕΓΡΑΦΣΕΝ, "Sophilos drew me".

At times we may find a snatch of dialogue to accompany a scene, as in ‘Dysniketos’s horse has won’, announces a herald on a Panathenaic amphora (BM, B 144). More puzzling, however, are the kalos and kalee inscriptions, which might have formed part of courtship ritual in Athenian high society, yet are found on a wide variety of vases not necessarily associated with a social setting. Finally there are abecedaria and nonsense inscriptions, though these are largely confined to black-figure pots.

Names of figures and objects
The labelling of figures is of obvious value in any iconographic study, although it is often a clearly identifiable character, such as Herakles, that is named.

Examples can be found on Corinthian vases from the seventh century, but they are rare on Athenian vases until the second quarter of the sixth century.

François Vase 
The François Vase carries 121 inscriptions - even for objects such as a hydria - but this is exceptional. The practice declines as the fifth century progresses.
Eretria Painter epinetron

Exclamations
Sometimes a message is inscribed on the vase, addressing the user or spectator.
Very occasionally, the figures themselves speak. Examples include the joy at seeing the first swallow of spring, a kitharode singing an epic poem and an oil merchant's desire to get rich.
Red figure cup transcription - OUDUNAMOU

Painter and potter signatures
The names of most of the potters and painters of Athenian figure-decorated vases are unknown to us. But some sign their vases, using the verbs egrapsen or epoiesen. Sophilos is our earliest Athenian example, although there are earlier examples from Corinth.

Egraphsen must mean painted:

Doris egraphsen = Douris painted [me]
An epoiesen inscription indicates 'made', and could conceivably refer to the painting ('so and so did this'). But when found alongside an egraphsen inscription, it most likely means 'potted':

Kle[i]tias [egra]phsen. Ergotimos epoiesen = Kleitias painted [me]. Ergotimos potted [me].
Sometimes the person signs as potter and painter:

Exekias egraphsenkapoesme = Exekias painted and potted me

Occasionally the inscriptions suggest that skills were passed down through the generations:

Tleson ho Nearchoepoiesen = Tleson, som of Nearchos, made [me]

Insight into workshop practices is provided in cases where the epoiesen signatures of one person are manifestly written by different hands. In these cases epoiesen could refer to the potter or workshop-owner.
Kalos inscriptions
From around the mid-sixth to the mid-fifth centuries, kalos inscriptions appear on Athenian vases, and are particularly prevalent on red-figure cups of the late sixth and early fifth. Occuring across a range of scenes, they rarely refer to the figure decoration.

Sometimes the word itself suffices, and may be repeated elsewhere on the vase.
In other instances, we find 'ho pais kalos' – 'the boy is beautiful',
or kalos accompanied by a name (mostly male; there are some instances of a female being praised in similar terms (kale)).
Hippodamas kalos - red-figure lekythos

More than two hundred such names are preserved, and the vase-painters seem to be praising a youth of Athenian society. In rare instances the name is known from other sources, and such inscriptions are helpful for dating. Even if the identity can not be fixed, their presence on vases attributed to different hands allows us to establish a relative chronology.

Figurines
Greek terracotta figurines were another important type of pottery, initially mostly religious, but increasingly representing purely decorative subjects. Earlier figurines were usually votive offerings at temples.

Metal
Several clay vases owed their inspiration to metal forms, which have not survived as much as clay due to being melted down. The alabastron's name suggests alabaster, stone. The Derveni Krater, from near Thessaloniki, is a large bronze volute krater from about 320 BC, weighing 40 kilograms, and finely decorated with a 32-centimetre-tall frieze of figures in relief representing Dionysus surrounded by Ariadne and her procession of satyrs and maenads.

Glass
Glass was also used, such as in Hellenistic glass.



Source/Photography/Bibliography

J.J.Pollitt, The Art of Greece; Sources and Documents (1965). Gobbets in translation.
Vitruvius, Ten Books on Architecture (The translation by M.H.Morgan is clear, or use the Loeb edition). Although written under Augustus with Hellenistic-Roman outlook, much is illuminating for classical Greek architecture.
A. Orlandos, Les Matériaux de construction et la technique architecturale des anciens Grecs (1966-8; also in Greek, Ta Ylika Domis ...). A step by step account of techniques from quarry to roofing, with ref.s to ancient texts.
http://www.ox.ac.uk
R. Martin, Manuel d'architecture grecque 1: Matériaux et techniques (1965). Similar to Orlandos, but with different emphases. Vols 2ff never appeared.
J.J. Coulton, 'Lifting in early Greek architecture'. JHS 94 (1974) 1-19. As title, but also with social implications.
Richard E. Jones: Greek and Cypriot Pottery: A Review of Scientific Studies. Athens 1985.
Martin Robinson, The Art of Vase-Painting in Classical Athens, Cambridge, 1992.
Arthur Dale Trendall, Red figure Vases of South Italy and Sicily, London, 1989.
Von Bothmer, Dietrich (1987). Greek vase painting. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0870990845.
Adam Winter, Die Antike Glanztonkeramik', Mainz, 1978.
J.J. Coulton, 'The second temple of Hera at Paestum and the pronaos problem'. JHS 95 (1975) 13-24. Looks at design procedure through the relation of outer and porch colonnades.
W.B. Dinsmoor, 'Structural iron in Greek architecture' AJA 26 (1922) 148-58. On the use of concealed iron beams etc.
M. Korres, 'The construction of ancient Greek temples' in R.Economakis (ed.) Acropolis Restoration (1994) 20-27.
M. Korres, From Pentelicon to the Parthenon (1995; earlier German and Greek editions). Magnificent drawings of quarrying, transport and the building site, with many pertinent observations.
R.L. Scranton, 'Greek building' in C.Roebuck (ed.), The Muses at Work (1969) 2-35. A brief account of organisation and methods.
L.T. Shoe, 'Dark stone in Greek architecture' Hesperia Suppl. 8 (1952) 341-52. Analysing the reasons for its use.
John Beazley, Attic Black-Figure Vase Painters, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1956.
John Beazley, Attic Red-Figure Vase Painters, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1942.
John Beazley, The Development of Attic Black-Figure, University of California, 1951.
John Beazley, Paralipomena, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1971.
John Boardman, Athenian Black figure Vases, London, 1974.
John Boardman, Athenian Red Figure Vases, London, 1975.
Sheramy Bundrick (October 17, 2005). Music and Image in Classical Athens. Cambridge University Press.
Coldstream, J. N., Geometric Greece 900–700 BC, London 2003 (Second Edition).
Joseph Veach Noble: The Techniques of Painted Attic Pottery. New York 1965.

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