Water-Driven Wheel, 250 BC

The Greeks invented the two main components of watermillsOffsite Link, the waterwheel and toothed gearing, and were, along with the Romans, the first to operate undershot, overshot and breastshot waterwheel mills.
Reconstruction of an ancient greek mechanism of the 3rd century B.C., used as a water pump (it is the most ancient pumping device in Europe), remains of which were found by Tomlinson during excavations at Perachora Korinthias, in the periphery of Peloponnese in Greece. 

It consisted of a large perpendicular wheel, bearing bronze or clay containers, which rotated with the help of animals through two wooden cogwheels vertically connected. The containers filled with water at the lower point of the wheel and subsequently tipped over to a tailrace at the higher point of the conduit.

The earliest written reference to a water-driven wheel is in the technical treatises Pneumatica and Parasceuastica of the Greek engineer Philo of ByzantiumOffsite Link (Φίλων ὁ Βυζάντιος). 


"Tomlinson, The Perachora waterworks"
"Chr. Lazos, Hydraulic instruments and mechanisms in Egypt during the Ptolemaic era"
Augusta Stylianou 

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